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by Bibek Debroy

Download Mahabharata Volume 4 eBook
Bibek Debroy
Penguin (October 14, 2011)
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The Mahabharata is one of the greatest stories ever told. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required.

The Mahabharata is one of the greatest stories ever told. Though the basic plot is widely known, there is much more to the epic than the dispute between Kouravas and Pandavas that led to the battle in Kurukshetra. It has innumerable sub-plots that accommodate fascinating meanderings and digressions.

Mahabharata: Volume 4. 777 printed pages. To read this book, upload an EPUB or FB2 file to Bookmate.

Bibek Debroy (born 25 January 1955) is an Indian economist, author and a. .

Bibek Debroy (born 25 January 1955) is an Indian economist, author and a bureaucrat. Debroy has made significant contributions to game theory, economic theory, income and social inequalities, poverty, law reforms, railway reforms and Indology among others. Debroy has authored over 100 books in the field of Economics, Polity, Indology and Sanskrit. Debroy translated the unabridged version of Mahabharata, the great Indian epic, into English, becoming only the third person ever to achieve the feat. Debroy's translation of the Mahabharata was published in a series of 10 volumes amounting to . 5 million words. Indeed, there are innumerable sub-plots embedded in the Mahabharata's staggering 80,000 shlokas or couplets. The fourth volume of the Mahabharata includes Virata Parva and almost all of Udyoga Parva.

Mahabharata by Bibek Debroy : Bibek Debroy : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive

Mahabharata by Bibek Debroy : Bibek Debroy : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive.

This item:The Mahabharata (Volume 4) by Bibek Debroy (Trans. Bibek Debroy is a member of Niti Aayog. He is an economist who has published popular articles, papers and books on economics. He also writes on Indology and Sanskrit

This item:The Mahabharata (Volume 4) by Bibek Debroy (Trans. Ships from and sold by tabletopart. The Mahabharata (Volume 9) by Bibek Debroy (Trans. Ships from and sold by GoForIt!. The Mahabharata (Volume 7) by Bibek Debroy (Trans. He also writes on Indology and Sanskrit. Penguin published Sarama and Her Children: The Dog in Indian Myth in 2008 and his translation of the Bhagavad Gita in 2006.

Save bookmarks and read as many as you like. Mahabharata: Volume 8. Debroy, Bibek. Mahabharata: Vol. 5. Mahabharata: Volume 7. Mahabharata Vol. 2 (Penguin Translated Texts). 6 (Penguin Translated Texts). Mahabharata: Volume 4. 3 (Penguin Translated Texts).

The Mahabharata is one of the greatest stories ever told. Though the basic plot is widely known, there is much more to the epic than the dispute between Kouravas and Pandavas that led to the battle in Kurukshetra. It has innumerable sub-plots that accommodate fascinating meanderings and digressions, and it has rarely been translated in full, given its formidable length of 80,000 shlokas or couplets. This magnificent 10- volume unabridged translation of the epic is based on the Critical Edition compiled at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. The fourth volume of the Mahabharata includes Virata Parva and almost all of Udyoga Parva. It describes the Pandavas thirteenth year of exile which they spend in disguise in King Virata s court. When, during their stay, the Kouravas and Trigartas invade Matsya to rob Virata of his cattle, the Pandavas defeat them in battle. With the period of banishment over, the Pandavas ask to be returned their share of the kingdom. This is refused and Udyoga Parva recounts the preparations for the inevitable war. Every conceivable human emotion figures in the Mahabharata, the reason why the epic continues to hold sway over our imagination. In this lucid, nuanced and confident translation, Bibek Debroy makes the Mahabharata marvellously accessible to contemporary readers.
  • RED
Even though it has many repetitions, it is detailed, has many subplots. What I loved most was that you can practically trace the geographical details of where the Pandavas traveled during their pilgrimage and the path Arjuna took in his quest for weapons.
  • Marige
Bibek Debroy has done a social service by translating this text of texts - this volume has references to Noah’s ark amongst other things :)
  • Asyasya
It is an amazing effort to make the translated version of the critical edition available. I am so happy to be able to read this version that the biased opinions of contemporary authors on this topic
  • Abywis
  • Risinal
Must read for anybody remotely interested in indian mythology
  • Shadowredeemer
This volume covers and completes the Aranyaka Parva, which began in Vol 2, and is a time of learning for the Pandavas. While Arjuna treks to heaven to obtain knowledge of weapons and dance from Indra, Yudhishtra is educated on dharma by a host of learned men, primary among them being sage Markandeya. This is also the volume with several famous tales that have been part of Hindu culture for millennia.

From the Aranyaka Parva, the third parva in the eighteen-parva classification, this volume contains chapters 33 through 44, chapter 33 being the "Tirtha Yatra" parva, and chapter 44 being the "Araneya" parva within the 100-parva classification. The very first parva, "Tirtha Yatra" is a massive adhyaya, clocking in at 2,422 shlokas. It is by far the longest parva in the epic so far. However, there seems to be some anomaly when adding up the shlokas in the Teertha Parva. The table in the Introduction states the Tirtha Parva as having 2422 shlokas, while page 1, where the Tirtha Parva starts, states that it has 2294 shlokas.

Arjuna has gone to the heavens in search of divine weapons that the Pandavas know they will need to get their kingdom back. The remaining Pandavas are missing Arjuna terribly. The sage Narada comes visiting, and Yudhishtra asks him to expound on the merits "obtained by someone who circles the earth and visits all the tirthas". The sage asks the Pandavas to listen in turn to what rishi Pulastya had told Bhishma in response to the same question. Thus begins Tirtha Parva. While we have been told in some detail the importance of Kurukshetra in Vol 1, in the Adi Parva, this parva contains more details on the holiness of Kurukshetra as a tirtha. "Even if one only wishes to go to Kurukshetra in one's mind, all one's sins are destroyed and one goes to to Brahma's world." and later "But in all the three worlds, Kurukshetra is special. Even the dust carried away by the winds in Kurukshetra takes the performer of evil acts to the supreme objective. ... Those who live in Kurukshetra live in heaven, "I will go to Kurukshetra, I will live in Kurukshetra," He who utters this single sentence is cleansed of all sins."

The stories of Agastya, Lopamudra Ilvala and Vatapi, Indra and Vritra (which is expounded upon in greater detail in Vol. 4), the Vindhyas are also to be found in this single tirtha. The story of Ganga, and how the ashes of the sons of King Sagara were immersed in the Ganga is then recounted starting with adhyaya 104 (of the Aranyaka Parva). We then get to hear about sage Rishabha, sage Kashyap's son Rishyashringa, who was born as the son of a deer, sage Jamadagni, his wife Renuka, and their fifth son Parshurama. The story of Sage Chyavana and Sukanya, which is also available as an Amar Chitra Katha, is recounted in chapter 122 and 123. The story of King Somaka and his lone son Jantu is heart-rending in some ways. A line from that adhyaya (128) is worth repeating here:
Dharma replied, 'O King!No one ever obtains the fruits of someone else's action.'
Chapter 130 and 131 retell the story of King Shibi, who was confronted by a familiar dilemma of dharma whereby protecting the dove would have meant depriving the hawk. (Read the Amar Chitra Katha, "Indra and Shibi", for a nice illustrated version of the story). Chapters 132 onwards the story of Ashtavakra is recited. Chapter 134 contains the famous debate between Ashtavakra and Bandi. You could read that adhyaya again and again, such is the cascading crescendo of the debate between the learned sage and the twelve-year old Ashtavakra.

There is a considerable amount of space devoted to Bhima's travels towards the Gandhamadana mountains and his meeting with his half-brother, Hanuman. It is only in chapter 161 that we see Arjuna return after completing his stay in the heavens.

Ajgara Parva is somewhat similar to Araneya parva. In both, it is Yudhishtra's knowledge of dharma that saves his brothers. One can also interpret these parvas in different manner. While it was Yudhishtra's love of gambling that saw him lose his kingdom, his brothers, and his wife, in gambling to Shakuni, it is recently acquired knowledge from the sages in the forest that sees him redeeming himself and saving his brothers.
While it is Bhima in the Ajgara Parva, it is all his four brothers that Yudhishtra saves in the Araneya Parva.

From the Ajgara Parva, there are a few lines that bear repeating, if only to highlight what Yudhishtra has to say about who is learned and who is not; in other words, who is a brahman and who is not.
Yudhishtra replied, "If these traits, not even found in a brahmana, are seen in a shudra, he is not a shudra. A brahmana in whom a brahmana's traits are not found, is a shudra." In other words, it is conduct that determines your caste, so to say. Putting it in even simpler words, one is noble or not based on actions. Karma is prime; birth is not. "All men are equal in speech ... birth, and death."

Immediately afterwards, in Chapter 178, we see a profound exchange between Nahusha and Yudhishtra on dharma. Yudhishtra asks,
"O serpent! Between generosity and truthfulness, which is seen to be superior? Between non-violence and good conduct, which is superior and which is inferior"
'The serpent replied, "The superiority or inferiority of generosity versus truthfulness or non-violence vis-a-vis good conduct is determined by whether the effects of these deeds are more or less important."

This emphasis on karma, deeds, is a recurring theme in the epic.This parva, Ajgara Parva, is profound in itself and bears resemblance to some of the principal Upanishads themselves.

There is yet another fascinating episode, where the sage Markandeya, tells the Pandavas the story of the sage Koushika, who, on being berated by the wife of a householder as not being conversant with the true meaning of dharma, left for the city of Mithila, where a hunter, who bought and sold meat, enlightens the sage on dharma. Yet another reminder of how it is our deeds that define who we are, and not where we are or how we were born. There is an passage where the hunter tries to disabuse sage Koushika of the notions of ahimsa (violence) by saying:
"Agriculture is known to be a virtuous occupation. But it has been said that there is great violence in this. Ploughing kills many beings that lie inside the ground and many other hundreds of beings. What is your view on this? ... Man hunts, kills and eats animals. They also cut trees and herbs. O brahmana! There are many living beings in trees and fruit. There are many in water too. What is your view on this? O brahmana! Everything is full of life and living beings. Fish eat fish, What is your view on this? O supreme among brahmanas! Beings live on other beings. O supreme among brahmanas! Beings live on other beings. ... But in this world, who does not injure living beings?"
This volume ends, as does the Aranyaka Parva, with chapter 299, and the Pandavas ready to enter the thirteenth year of exile incognito.

Bibek Debroy, the translator, is an economist with a difference. How so? Well, let's just say different. Consider this. In the early 1980s, while at the Presidency College in Kolkata, the author wrote a paper where he did a "statistical test on the frequency with which the five Pandavas used various weapons in the Kurukshetra war." Yes. Different. While his interest in the Mahabharata "remained, I got sidetracked into translating. Through the 1990s, there were abdridged translations of the Maha Puranas, the Vedas and the eleven major Upanishads."

The author has followed the Critical Edition from the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, in Pune, for his translation. The entire series is expected to run into ten volumes, and so far, at the time of my writing this review of the third volume, four volumes have been released, with each volume appearing roughly every six months, the most recent one, Vol. 4, published in Nov. 2011.
  • Goltigor
This fourth volume contains the entire Virata Parva, the fourth parva as per the 18-parva classification, and most of the fifth parva, Udyoga Parva. As per the 100-parva classification it contains sections 45 through 59, the 45th parva being Vairata Parva, while the 59th parva is Ratha-Atiratha Samkhya. It contains all the sections (adhyayas) of the Udyoga Parva, with the exception of the last adhyayay, Ambopakyana Parva, which I guess recalls the tale of Amba after she left the Kuru assembly several years ago.

The first parva in this book is Vairata Parva, in which Yudhishtra and the Pandava brothers discuss how and where to spend the thirteenth year of their exile, incognito.

Kichaka-Vadha Parva sees the end of King Virata's chief of army, Kichaka, who was also Queen Sudeshna's brother. This is also the parva where we see a considerable amount of humour too.

The Go-Grahana Parva, as the name suggests, is the stealing of the cows from King Virata's kingdom.

Udyoga Parva begins with consultations between the Pandavas and the others in King Virata's assembly hall.

Sanjaya-Yana Parva talks about Sanjaya's mission to Upalavya as Dhritarashtra's messenger. Dhritarashtra, despite the long message he has for Sanjaya, actually has only item on his agenda - "... whatever you think should be said for the the welfare of the Bharatas, say that in the midst of the kings, but do not say anything that incites them to the war."

The book ends with the Ratha-Atiratha-Samkhya Parva, where Bhishma gives his assessment of the strengths of the warriors on both sides of the armies, but not without causing more grief to Karna. The book ends on a tantalizing note, with the promise of the story of Shikhandi, and Amba, to follow in the next parva.